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Capital: Lima
Government type: constitutional republic
Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador.
Area: land: 1.28 million sq km
Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes.
Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva).
Population: 28,674,757 (July 2007 est.)
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages.