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Government type: republic
Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru.
Area: land: 276,840 sq km
Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands.
Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente).
Population: 13,755,680 (July 2007 est.)
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)