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Government type: constitutional republic
Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panamá.
Area: land: 1,038,700 sq km
Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands.
Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains.
Population: 44,379,598 (July 2007 est.)
Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%